DRUGS and It’s Classification

DRUGS and It’s Classification

Psychoactive substances or drugs are substances that directly affects the structure or functioning of Central Nervous System (CNS) and alters mood, behaviors, judgement and sensory perceptions of the individual. The mode of action of every drug varies but the categorization can be made on the basis of pharmacological effect of these drugs. Pharmacological effect refers to how drug affects the brain and body.

Although there are few drugs such as cannabis, inhalants and dissociative anaesthetics that have varied effects that make it difficult to categorize but based on the pharmacological effects there are four distinct categories of drug i.e. Opioids, Depressants, Stimulants, and Hallucinogens.


Opioids are commonly known as pain relieving drugs or narcotic drugs. Heroin, Morphine, Methadone, Fantanyl or opium are most common drugs of this category. Opioids are used for medical purposes such as reduction in sensation of pain, anesthesia which leads to greater risk of abusing this substances among individuals.
Some of the effects of these drugs include sedation, inability to focus, reduced heart rate and blood pressure, slow breathing, nausea , mood instability and itchy skin.


Depressants are drugs which slow down the activity or functions of Central nervous system. Alcohol, Benzodiazepines and barbiturates fall into this category. The effects of depressants are slow reflexes, poor motor coordination, poor judgement, blurred vision, drowsiness, relief from anxiety, gastrointestinal problems, dysfunction of immune system and kidney issues.


Stimulant drugs usually excites or speed up the brain activity. Some of the common drugs of this category include Cocaine, ICE, Amphetamine and Methamphetamine. Stimulants usually produce state of Euphoria, Increase alertness, attention and energy, Increase BP, heat rate, respiration,
Excessive talking, Unrealistic feeling of competence and power, Sexual problems and agitation.


This category of drug generally distorts the perception of objective reality and cause hallucinations. The nature of symptoms varies greatly. LSD, Mescaline and Psilocybin are the most common drugs of this class. The effects of hallucinogens drugs are recurrent flashbacks, psychosis, difficulty in concentration, euphoria, sensory disturbances and increased blood pressure.

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