Mood, Related Terms & Mood Disorders

There are some very common but complex terms which we here often. We use these terms interchangeably but they are actually a bit different in their context. These terms are, feelings, moods, emotions and affect. Let’s look at their basic explanation one by one.


Affect is a verb and its an umbrella term. It is a broader term as it incorporates the terms mood and emotion in it. It includes feelings and mental states. It is “how you experience any feeling” (whether pleasant or unpleasant). Affect is visible (foreground) in form of emotion and invisible (background) in form of mood. Affect generates emotion.

Example: Flat effect, Shallow effect, Constricted effect

Affect → Emotion → Mood


Emotions are short term, intense and automatic reactions which have a reason/cause. It is temporary. It can be seen through facial expression and body language. Its obvious and not hidden. Emotions establish initial attitude towards reality. They cab be illogical as they do not carry any reasoning or logic. In simple terms, a response that arises from external stimuli in physical state, is emotion. Emotions create moods.

Example: Happiness, sadness, Fear, Anger, disgust, Suspect


Moods are of longer duration but they are not intense. Moods persists/remain from hours to days. They are less specific and does not necessarily needs a stimulus. Moods are positive (good) or negative (bad). Moods are hidden, cannot be observed or seen.

Example: Anxious, Depressed, Dysphoric, Euphoric, Irritable, Angry


Feelings are associated with thinking and are a reaction to emotions. Feeling is a long-term attitude towards the reality. Feelings can be hidden but they are sustainable. They have cognition and awareness. They are long lasting and involves thought processes. They can be seen as meanings to emotions.

Example: Joy, Relaxed, Calm, Proud


Mood disorders are long term mood disturbances caused by the imbalance of the chemicals in the brain. Mood disorders are long-term and are also known as affective disorders. There are emotional indicators assessed through psychological tests that point towards a mood disorder.

According to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth edition), mood disorders are broadly classified into two main categories which further have several types.

  1. Bipolar & Related Disorders
  2. Bipolar I Disorder
  3. Bipolar II Disorder
  • Cyclothymic Disorder
  1. Substance/Medication-Induced Bipolar & Related Disorder
  2. Bipolar & Related Disorder due to Another Medical Condition
  3. Other Specified Bipolar & Related Disorder
  • Unspecified Bipolar & Related Disorder
  1. Depressive disorders
  2. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
  3. Major Depressive Disorder, Single & Recurrent Episodes
  • Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)
  1. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
  2. Substance/Medication-Induced Depressive Disorder
  3. Depressive Disorder due to Another Medical Condition
  • Other Specified Depressive Disorder
  • Unspecified Depressive Disorder

People with substance use problems sometimes suffer from mood disorders as well. At Clifton Karachi, our qualified and trained team of psychologists, psychiatrists, recovery coaches, sponsors, nursing, and support staff are sensitive to feelings and moods of clients. They are always ready to support clients with depression or any other comorbid condition along with substance use.

At PRC Rehabilitation Center, clients are taught to identify their feelings and how these feelings can affect their recovery process. Drug and alcohol addiction often leads to shame and low self-esteem and it is vice versa. Shame and low self-worth lead towards depression. Clients with substance use disorders needs to be understood & should be treated with patience, care and respect.

If any of your loved one is suffering and struggling with addiction, depression or other mental health problems, you can always reach out for help at 0341-1959599 or visit our treatment rehabilitation centers.

Find us on google map.

Scroll to Top